Italian Game: Mastering the Chess Opening

Unleash Your Inner Chess Champion

Join our exclusive newsletter for opening guides, tips, and inspiration. Our community of 5,131+ chess enthusiasts is waiting for you.
Don't wait – enter your email below and join now!

Introduction to the Italian Game

Welcome to our comprehensive guide on the Italian Game, a highly strategic and dynamic chess opening. In this article, we will delve into the intricacies of the Italian Game, exploring its various variations, attacking strategies, and effective counters. Whether you’re a beginner or an experienced player, this guide will equip you with the knowledge and tactics needed to excel in the Italian Game.

The Italian Game – The Best Chess Opening for White

The Italian Game is initiated with the following moves: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4. The fundamental idea behind this opening is for White to develop their Bishop to c4, strategically targeting Black’s vulnerable f7 pawn, which is only defended by the King. This aggressive move creates an early attack and sets the tone for the subsequent gameplay.

The Italian Game is an Open or Double-King Pawn Game (1. e4 e5) which is one of the most popular chess openings for white. The other popular chess openings for white would be the Ruy-Lopez, Queen’s Gambit and the London System.

Here in this post, ChessLoversOnly will go through the general theory and main variations of the Italian Game with other posts linked below delving into each variation in greater detail.

You may also like:

The Italian Game (C50) – 1.e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4

Most people who start playing chess play the Italian Game (C50) or the Ruy Lopez (C60). These two chess openings are the most natural continuation of games which begin with 1.e4 e5.

The Italian Game and the Ruy Lopez are part of chess openings called the Open Game.

Many games in the Open Game (1.e4 e5) are decided by blunders or simple tactics because pieces are more active in the open positions than Closed Games.

The Italian Game has many interesting variations, which are in some ways quite deadly.

Play through the opening with notes below in ChessLoversOnly‘s lichess study.

You can click the links below in order to look in more detail at each variation of the Italian Game. Or you can continue to read to look at the general overview of the Italian Game.

Italian Game (C50): 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4

3. … Bc5 (Giuoco Piano)
a. Giuoco Piano (C50): 3. … Bc5
b. Evan’s Gambit (C51): 3. … Bc5 4. b4
c. The Deutz Gambit (C55): 3. …Bc5 4. 0-0 Nf6 5. d4

3. …Nf6 (Two Knights Defense)
a. Modern Bishop’s Opening (C55): 3. …Nf6 4. d3
b. The Knight Attack (C57): 3. …Nf6 4. Ng5!
c. Traxler Counterattack (C57): 3. …Nf6 4. Ng5! Bc5
d. Fried Liver Attack (C57): 3. …Nf6 4. Ng5! d5 5. exd5 Nxd5 6. Nxf7

3. …Be7 (Hungarian Defense)
a. Hungarian Defense: 3. …Be7

So, please continue on to look at the general ideas of the Italian Game Chess Opening for white.

How to Reach the Italian Game

To reach the Italian Game, players need to execute five precise moves. Begin by advancing your king’s pawn to e4, followed by moving Black’s king pawn two spaces forward. Then, position your kingside knight to attack Black’s pawn. Black should respond by defending the pawn with their knight. Finally, move your kingside bishop to launch an attack on Black’s king. In chess notation, these moves are represented as: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4.

The Italian Game Chess Family

The Italian Game is a family of openings that all begin the same way:

1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4

The Italian Game is part of the Open Chess Games, which start with e4, e5 and lead to many different pawn structures and chess positions.

This means the Italian Game is one of the best openings for beginners to practice their chess knowledge and understand what to do in different chess positions that may arise in other chess openings. If you want to get better at your chess games, you need to study the Italian game chess opening. There are some great chess YouTubers to help you too.

The Italian Game - Chess Openings for White
1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nc6 3. Bc4 (The Italian Game)

The Italian Game then branches off into many different variations after move three.

Black has two main choices at move three which will limit how white could respond: 3…Bc5 (The Guicco Piano) and 3…Nf6 (The Two Knights Defence).

Why Play the Italian Game?

Unlike its popular alternative, the Ruy Lopez, the Italian Game requires minimal theoretical study. By deploying the Bishop to c4, White expertly targets Black’s f7 pawn—the Achilles’ heel of Black’s position, solely guarded by the King. This strategic advantage grants White a powerful early attack, increasing the chances of seizing control of the game from the outset.

Every Move Explained: Variations of the Italian Game

The Giucco Piano3. …Bc5

The Giuoco Piano is a highly regarded chess opening and a formidable defense against 1.e4 e5. It commences with the moves: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5. The Giuoco Piano is renowned for its strategic depth and is frequently employed at the highest levels of chess.

White’s Moves

White can employ several effective strategies in the Giuoco Piano. One approach is to pin Black’s knight by playing Bg5 when Black has castled, preventing the knight from retreating and creating potential vulnerabilities in Black’s position. Another key move for White is to push the c3 pawn to d4, seizing control of the center. Additionally, advancing pawns on the queenside with c3-b4-a5 and redirecting the bishop to a3 can create considerable difficulties for Black when attempting to castle.

Black’s Moves

In the Giuoco Piano, Black typically responds by castling kingside to fortify their King’s safety. Another important move for Black is to pin White’s knight to the queen by playing their bishop to f5, exerting pressure on White’s position. Exchanging material and transitioning into an endgame can be a favorable strategy for Black, particularly when White has the initiative. Black can counter-attack by playing d7-d5, preventing White from dominating the center and establishing a strong defensive stance.

A Counterattack By Black:

3…Bc5 leads to the Giuoco Piano and many other variations that spring from the Guico Piano. Here, black counterattacks by placing their bishop on c5 where it attacks white’s weak f7 square.

Giuoco Piano (
3. …Bc5 (The Giucco Piano in the Italian Game)

a. Giuoco Piano: 3. …Bc5
b. Evan’s Gambit: 3. …Bc5 4. b4
c. The Deutz Gambit: 3. …Bc5 4. 0-0 Nf6 5. d4

The Two Knights Defense – 3. …Nf6

The Two Knights Defense is an alternative strategy for Black, designed to counter White’s Italian Game. The sequence of moves is: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Nf6. This defense aims to entice White into attacking Black’s f7 pawn with 4.Ng5, initiating a highly tactical game.

White’s Moves

As White, the recommended move is 4.Ng5. Despite the tactical nature of the ensuing gameplay, White can secure a pawn advantage with optimal play. It is essential to be prepared for the tactical complexities that arise while maintaining the initiative.

Black’s Moves

Black responds by maneuvering their Knight to a5, effectively forcing White’s bishop to retreat. Simultaneously, this opens up space to expand on the queenside with …c5, setting the stage for a counter-attack. Black can further enhance their queenside advantage by advancing with moves like Ra8-b8, a7-a6, and b7-b5. Additionally, exchanging the light-squared bishops by playing Bc8-e6 can neutralize White’s strong bishop on the a2-g8 diagonal.

Aggressive Variations:

3…Nf6 leads to the Two Knights Defense, which White can exploit in many aggressive variations such as the Fried Liver Attack. The Fried Liver Attack is a brilliant attacking variation, so you must study this chess opening for some easy wins.

Two Knights Defense (The Italian Game) (
3. …Nf6 (The Two Knights Defense in the Italian Game)

In the Two Knights Defense variation, white can easily get some wins by playing 4. Ng5! White is able to do this because black can castle to safety and because black’s knight on f6 interferes with the black queen’s defence of the g5 square.

a. Modern Bishop’s Opening: 3. …Nf6 4. d3
b. The Knights Attack: 3. …Nf6 4.Ng5!
c. Traxler Counterattack: 3. …Nf6 4. Ng5! Bc5
d. Fried Liver Attack: 3. …Nf6 4. Ng5! d5 5.exd5 Nxd5 6. Nxf7

The Hungrian Defense (One Poor Sideline for Black) – 3. …Be7

The Hungarian Defense is an effective response employed by Black to counter White’s Italian Game. It starts with the moves: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Be7. The primary objective of this defense is to prevent White from executing the Fried Liver Attack.

White’s Moves

In the Hungarian Defense, White typically responds by castling kingside to safeguard their King. Another crucial move is pushing the c3 pawn to d4, establishing control over the center. By doing so, White aims to dominate the crucial d4 square.

Black’s Moves

Black’s strategy revolves around attacking White’s e4 pawn with their Knight. Additionally, Black also casts their King to the kingside for defensive purposes. Expanding on the kingside with …f5 is a recommended approach, utilizing the c7-d6-e5 pawn chain effectively. Breaking White’s center with …c6 can disrupt their position, allowing Black to exchange pieces and pawns, especially when confined by limited space.

Study This Variation

There is also another move that black can make on the third move – that is 3. …Be7 (the Hungarian Defense). Even if it’s not such a good variation for black, they might still make this move so you need to study this chess opening too.

Black makes this move in order to get out of the main Italian Game theory as above, however, this move lets White maintain a healthy advantage. Therefore, it is just a mere sideline in the Italian Game, but you might meet it sometime in your chess career. Therefore, it’s important that you know how to punish it and win an easy game.

Hungarian Defense (
3. …Be7 (Hungarian Defense of the Italian Game)

a. Hungarian Defense: 3. …Be7

This post was mainly an overview of the different variations and lines in the Italian Game – the best white opening to improve your chess.

Italian Game: The Main Line

The Main Line of the Italian Game is a central focus of study for players seeking to master this opening. It begins with the moves: 1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3. This line encompasses various plans and ideas to gradually build up the position and apply strategic pressure on the opponent.

White’s Moves

To execute the Main Line of the Italian Game effectively, White should prioritize expanding on the queenside. Moves like c2-c3, b2-b4, and a2-a4 can create additional space and potentially lead to the creation of a passed pawn. Taking control of the center by playing c2-c3 and d3-d4 after developing the pieces and castling is essential. Additionally, retreating the bishop to c2 serves a dual purpose: protecting it from potential attacks and positioning it on the b1-h7 diagonal to directly threaten Black’s king. Playing h3 is recommended to prevent any counter-attacking chances for Black on the kingside, safeguarding the g4 square.

Black’s Moves

Black’s strategy in the Main Line of the Italian Game includes pinning White’s knight on f3 by placing their bishop on g4. This pin restricts White’s options and forces them to address this tactical challenge. Black can also consider maneuvering their knight from f6 to h5 and then to f4 if White plays c2-c3, aiming to attack White’s d3 pawn. Playing a6 is a wise move to prevent White from establishing strong pieces on the queenside, providing a safe square for the c5 bishop to retreat to.


Mastering the Italian Game requires a solid understanding of its variations and strategic nuances. By utilizing the Hungarian Defense, Two Knights Defense, Giuoco Piano, and exploring the Main Line, players can navigate the complexities of the Italian Game and gain a competitive edge in their chess games.

The Italian Game is a Versatile Opening

The Italian Game is a versatile opening that offers different approaches based on Black’s responses. The Hungarian Defense aims to prevent White from executing a Fried Liver Attack, while the Two Knights Defense invites White to attack the f7-pawn, leading to a tactical battle. On the other hand, the Giuoco Piano focuses on strategic maneuvering and exploiting imbalances on both sides of the board. Lastly, the Main Line of the Italian Game emphasizes expanding on the queenside, taking control of the center, and pressuring Black’s position.

Understanding the intricacies of each variation allows players to tailor their gameplay according to their preferred style and strategic goals. It is important to study the characteristic moves, ideas, and plans associated with each line to maximize the potential of the Italian Game.

Seize the Initiative

By employing the Italian Game, players can seize the initiative early on, target Black’s weaknesses, and launch powerful attacks. Its simplicity and effectiveness make it an attractive choice, especially for those who prefer a less theory-intensive opening. However, it is crucial to remember that success in chess goes beyond the opening moves. Developing strong middlegame strategies, positional understanding, and tactical awareness are equally important aspects to consider.

To enhance your skills in the Italian Game, it is recommended to analyze master games, study renowned variations, and engage in practice games to gain practical experience. By consistently honing your understanding of the Italian Game and its variations, you can elevate your chess play and outmaneuver your opponents.

A Captivating Opening

In conclusion, the Italian Game is a captivating opening that offers diverse opportunities for both White and Black. Whether you choose the Hungarian Defense, Two Knights Defense, Giuoco Piano, or explore the Main Line, a thorough understanding of the moves, ideas, and strategic concepts will allow you to navigate the complexities of the Italian Game with confidence. So, embrace the Italian Game, experiment with different variations, and let your chess prowess flourish on the 64 squares.

What next for Chess and ChessLoversOnly?

Keep coming back to Chess Lovers Only for more chess-related news and chess opening studies!

What should we write about next?
Let us know in the comment box below!

Or Contact Me here.


A.J. McMahon


Let’s Connect!
Youtube: ChessLoversOnly
– Instagram: Chess.Lovers.Only
– Pinterest: ChessLoversOnly
– Facebook: ChessLoversOnly
– Twitter: @ChessLoversOnly

Previous articleThe French Defense – Learn a Top 3 Chess Opening for Black
Next articleChess Openings – How to Destroy Your Opponent in the Open Game
A novelist for Young Adults and Children. I am an extremely avid reader of science fiction and Korean literature, and love talking about books. I have worked and lived in Seoul, South Korea for over 5 years. I have TOPIK level 5 and enjoy reading Korean novels in Korean as well.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

1 × 3 =

Captcha verification failed!
CAPTCHA user score failed. Please contact us!